Essays, Journal Articles, Reports, Quick Facts

Trafficking, Prostitution and Inequality by Catharine MacKinnon, 2009, 2011, 2016, 2019

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“Nordic/Equality Model” – A French law aimed at strengthening the fight against the prostitutional system and providing support to prostituted persons: principles, goals, measures and adoption of a historic law, Coalition Against Prostitution International.

‘Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law” by Max Waltman. Michigan J. Int’l Law 33 (2011): 133-57, . The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries and argues that Sweden’s law is by far the most cogent state response under international trafficking law.

Prostitution and Trafficking – Quick Facts

Melissa Farley, PhD and Emily Butler, JD Prostitution Research & Education 2012,

“Ten Reasons for Not Legalizing Prostitution and a Legal Response to the Demand for Prostitution” by Janice G. Raymond,

“Consent, Coercion, and Culpability: Is Prostitution Stigmatized Work or an Exploitive and Violent Practice Rooted in Sex, Race, and Class Inequality?” By Melissa Farley and Rachel Moran, Consent, coercion, and culpability: Is prostitution stigmatized work or an exploitive and violent practice rooted in sex, race, and class inequality?

“Trafficking, Prostitution and the Sex Industry: The Nordic Legal Model” by Janice G.Raymond, (2010), Coalition Against Trafficking of Women International,

“Decriminalization of prostitution: The Soros effect” by Jody Raphael. (2018) Dignity: A Journal of Sexual Exploitation and Violence . Vol 3, Iss 1. Article 1,

Conversation with Jody Raphael about “Decriminalization of Prostitution: The Soros Effect” Heather Bruskell-Evans Kings College,

“Decriminalized Prostitution: Impunity for Violence and Exploitation” by Melanie ShapiroEsq. and Donna M. Hughes, Ph.D. A documentation of what happened in Rhode Island when “indoor” prostitution was legalized,

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation Violence” The journal (Digital Commons) is edited by Dr. Donna Hughes, University of Rhode Island. Issues from 2016 – 2019, A great resources for researchers and advocates,

“#MeToo Must Include Prostitution” by Melissa Farley,

“Why We Must Oppose the Full Decriminalization of Prostitution” by Taina Bien-Aime, Coalition Against Trafficking of Women International – Congressional Testimony, July, 2017,

SPACE International – a website clearinghouse for activists and survivors in various countries working for adoption of the Nordic Model,

Books We Recommend

Not a Choice, Not a Job – Exposing the Myths About Prostitution and the Global Sex Trade by Janice G. Raymond, (2013), Potomac Books, available on Amazon.

The Pimping of Prostitution Abolishing the Sex Work Myth by Julie Bindel (2017) (Palgrave MacMillan, U.K.)

Paid For My Journey through Prostitution by Rachel Moran (2013) (Gill MacMillan –Dublin)

Prostitution and Trafficking in Nevada Making the Connections by Melissa Farley (2007)

Prostitution Research and Education (PRE),


Prostitution Research and Education, is packed with lots of useful articles and fact sheets. The PRE website provides a link to the list of 350 survivors of prostitution and trafficking who have signed a letter to the 2020 Presidential Candidates urging that they say No to decriminalization of prostitution.

Coalition Against Trafficking of Women International (CATW) – Based in New York, CATW is a non-governmental organization that works to end human traffickingand the commercial sexual exploitation of womenand children worldwide. CATW is the world’s first organization to fight human traffickinginternationally and is the world’s leading abolitionist organization.

National Center on Sexual Exploitation – NCOSE is the leading national organization exposing the links between all forms of sexual exploitation such as child sexual abuse, prostitution, sex trafficking and the public health crisis of pornography. Splash

European Women’s Lobby – EWL is the largest European umbrella network of women’s Associations and works to make Europe free of prostitution. EWL envisions a society in which women’s contribution to all aspects of life is recognized, rewarded and celebrated – in leadership, in care and in production; all women have self-confidence, freedom of choice, and freedom from violence and exploitation; and no woman or girl is left behind.

Rights4Girls – Rights4Girls is a D.C.-based human rights organization working to end gender-based violence and advocate for the dignity and rights of young women and girls—so that every girl can be safe and live a life free of violence and exploitation.

Polaris Project – Named after the North Star that guided slaves to freedom in the U.S., Polaris systemically disrupts the human trafficking networks that rob human beings of their lives and their freedom. Polaris helps survivors restore their freedom, prevents more victims, and leverages data and technology to pursue traffickers wherever they operate.

Breaking Free – Breaking Free, a non-profit based on Minnesota, helps hundreds of women escape systems of prostitution and sexual exploitation through direct services. The organization directly serves the people who have been impacted by trafficking and prostitution through advocacy, housing, education and immediate action.

CAASE – End Demand Illinois, a campaign of the Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation is a coalition of service organizations, survivor-leaders, government agencies, and law enforcement agencies working to stop the demand for commercial sex by dissuading men from buying sex. CAASE promotes prevention education and laws and practices that focus on criminal justice interventions on buyers, pimps, and traffickers.

Refuge House – Refuge House, located in Tallahassee, Florida, provides direct services to victims of domestic violence and sexual assault and their children and families. It also works to eliminate violence through community education and public advocacy.

Apne Aap – Apne Aap Women Worldwide is a registered charitable trust in India that works to empower girls and women to resist and end sex trafficking by organizing marginalized women and girls into small self-empowerment groups, where they work collectively to access their legal, social, economic, and political rights. Founded by twenty-two courageous women in prostitution who had a vision for a world where no woman could be bought or sold, Apne Aap Women Worldwide is determined to make their vision a reality.

Embrace Dignity – Embrace Dignity is a non-profit in Cape Town, South Africa that strives for the realization of gender equality by directly challenging patriarchal, cultural and gender norms that oppress women and girls. They do this by championing the rights of prostituted people through our Law Reform Advocacy, Public Education and Exit programs.

Girls Educational & Mentoring Services (“GEMS”) – For the past 20 years, Girls Educational & Mentoring Services (GEMS), based in New York, has served as the nation’s leading organization for empowering commercially sexually exploited and domestically trafficked girls and young women. Through cultural change, advocacy, training, and survivor leadership, GEMS is committed to shifting public perception and policy.

European Women’s Lobby – EWL is the largest European umbrella network of women’s associations. EWL envisions a society in which women’s contribution to all aspects of life is recognized, rewarded and celebrated – in leadership, in care and in production; all women have self-confidence, freedom of choice, and freedom from violence and exploitation; and no woman or girl is left behind.

Federal Agencies

U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Human Trafficking,

U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Office The TIP office doesn’t appear to have a webpage about its operations, but has a Facebook page,

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act requires the office to produce an annual report on effort to reduce trafficking around the world,